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Risks associated with placenta previa during pregnancy


The placenta It is an organ whose origin is the same as the fetus, that is, it is formed from the sperm and the ovum, and is of vital importance for the normal development of pregnancy and the growth of the future baby. What factors affect the development of placenta previa during pregnancy?

The placenta it has a maternal face, which is inserted into the uterus, and a fetal face. This body has multiple functions, among which are:

- Respiratory and nutritional
The baby takes in oxygen and nutrients from the mother through the umbilical cord and then releases waste products through the placenta and umbilical cord.

- Endocrine
Since it secretes several hormones necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy and growth of the fetus.

- Immunological
It prevents the mother's defense system from identifying the pregnancy as a foreign body and attacking it. In addition, it also acts as a barrier to protect the future baby from toxic substances.

The usual is that the placenta is inserted into the mother's uterus, leaving the cervix free, since it is where the baby will come out on the day of delivery. However, between 0.3 and 0.8% of cases it is located by covering the cervix totally or partially. Why can this occur? What factors influence pregnancy to develop placenta previa in pregnancy?

- Previous cesarean section

- Multiple pregnancies

- Multiple spontaneous or induced abortions

- Advanced age

- History of placenta previa

The SEGO (Spanish Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics) classifies it according to the affectation in different degrees:

- Grade I: Low placenta, but that does not obstruct the cervical os.

- Grade II: Marginal placenta, when the placenta reaches just the edge of the internal cervical os, but does not exceed it.

- Grade III: Partial occlusive placenta, the cervical os is covered by the placenta, but not completely.

- Grade IV: Total occlusive placenta, the cervical os is completely covered by the placenta.

The diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound, since in the controls by the gynecologist not only the fetal well-being is valued, but the normal location of the placenta as well as its morphology. In most cases, the pregnancy passes without incident, however, it can happen that sometimes the woman presents a bright red bleeding, which occurs from the second trimester.

The definitive diagnosis should be made in the third trimester, since earlier due to the growth of the uterus, the placenta can move upwards, away from the cervix.

If the placenta is occlusive (in grades III and IV), the delivery cannot be vaginal since this would prevent the baby from being delivered; so if all goes well, a cesarean section would be scheduled when the baby is full term. In cases where the bleeding is abundant and does not subside, an emergency cesarean section should be done and, if the baby is not full term, the mother should be treated with intramuscular corticosteroids to promote the baby's lung maturation. and in the necessary cases a blood transfusion would be made to the mother.

The most important thing, as we always say, is to go to medical check-ups with your gynecologist to check that everything is developing normally or, to detect, whenever the case is the case, placenta previa in pregnancy or any other complication.

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Video: Risk Factors of Placenta Previa (December 2021).